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OSCOLA referencing guide (Online): Journal Articles Journals articles Print articles Online articles To cite a print journal use the following format: Author, 'title' [year] journal name or abbreviation first page of article [OR] Author, 'title' (year) volume journal name or abbreviation first page of article Note that standard abbreviations are also used for journal names; here MLR refers to Modern Law Review. For two or three authors, all named authors must be included. Paul Craig, Theory, Pure Theory and Values in Public Law [2005] PL 440. Ibid., p. 25). 27. ibid 271-78. Statutory instruments (SIs) are numbered consecutively throughout the year; its this number that appears at the end of the citation the example below is the 149th SI of 2020. Morten Hviid, Sofia Izquierdo-Sanchez, and Sabine Jacques, Computers as Inventors Legal and Policy Implications of Artificial Intelligence on Patent Law, http://www.askoxford.com/betterwriting/us/?view=uk, Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA), https://www.openrightsgroup.org/blog/2017/a-brief-chance-for-better-uk-data-protection-law, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/may/09/uber-licence-drivers-gmb-transport-for-london, Timed influence: The future of Modern (Family) life and the law, Predicting Innovation: Why Facebook/WhatsApp Merger Flunked, Georgia vs. Public.Resource.org: The Morning After. If citing an online encyclopedia, give the URL and date of access: See OSCOLA 4th edn 3.2.6 for more details. In the text,a number in superscript1is added at the end of a sentence and after the punctuation. Put a comma after the first page of the article if you want to refer to a particular page or set of pages: If the year serves as the volume identifier, put the year in square brackets [ ]. Use HL for the House of Lords, CA for the Court of Appeal, QB, CH and F for the division of the High Court, and Com Ct for the Commercial Court within the Queens Bench Division. Paragraphs following headings are not indented, but continuing paragraphs are. Examples of in-text citations and reference list entries for key source types. For example, in the following citation, the first number refers to the page on which the report begins, while the second number pinpoints the passage youre referring to: Where available, paragraph numbers should be used instead of page numbers. If online journals lack some of the publication elements for OSCOLA, follow the citation advice of the online journal. When referring to a judge within a case, use the judges surname followed by the correct abbreviation. Revised on An example of a typical case citation without a neutral citation is: When the year is used to identify the law report volume, you should always put it in square brackets. The letter L refers to the legislation series. These remarks made by the Director of company X indicate that). Laurie,Genetic Privacy,supra n. 24, p. 3 or Laurie and Dove, Consent and Anonymisation,supran. 25, pp. Cruft R, Title of Book Review (2011) Law & Philosophy 637, Ben McFarlane and Donal Nolan, Remedying Reliance: The Future Development of Promissory and Proprietary Estoppel in English Law (Obligations III conference, Brisbane, July 2006), 1. When asked about the role of a newspapers proprietor Rupert Murdoch said: Section 4(2) of the Human Rights Act 1998 states in s 4(2) of the Human Rights Act 1998 and in ss 6-9 of that Act Clarkson CMV and Keating HM and Cunningham SR. 1. For subsequent citation of statutes or regulations (including EU legislation), please cite the shortened name (if commonly used), and relevant section or article, e.g. There is no need to cite an electronic source for such a publication. Greenleaf G, The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information (2010) 1(1) EJLT accessed 27 July 2010, Sarah Cole, Virtual Friend Fires Employee (, Cole S, Virtual Friend Fires Employee (. author, | title | [year] | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article,| specific page referred to, author, | title | (year) | volume | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article. JAG Griffith, 'The Common Law and the Political Constitution' (2001) 117 LQR 42, 64. endstream endobj startxref Re T (adult: refusal of medical treatment), [1992] 4 All ER 649 (CA). OSCOLA abbreviates a wide range of legal sources and institutions. Use the following format to cite cases. For example: You can see from this example that the information in brackets shows that this Act was given royal assent in the forty-first year of the reign of George III. You dont need to give the place of publication. Example: Topping S, Beck D and Wilson P, Analysing Law (Routledge, London 2008). You should show the reader that you have used a range of sources in your work, which they could then find themselves. (2008) 71 MRL 413 accessed 15 Jan 2014. For more detailed information, see OSCOLA 1.5. Abbe Brown et al.). hb```,+@( `=ar The most common ones are covered below. Full citation (including footnote number for illustration) 3 John Knowles, Effective Legal Research (4 th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2016) 33.. Authors' surname and cross-citation to footnote number 3. If you do shorten names this way, you should always choose the name which comes first in the full name of the case in this case Glebe Motors, rather than Dixon-Greene. 0 Scratan P and Chadwick K, 'Critical research', Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/1992 establishing the standard import values for determining the entry price of certain fruit and vegetables [2015] OJ L 290/12, HC Deb 3 February 1977, vol 389, cols 97376 40, Interview with Irene Kull, Assistant Dean, Faculty of Law, Tartu University (Tartu, Estonia, 4 August 2003), Letter from Gordon Brown to Lady Ashton (20 November 2009). Try to be specific and use a specific footnote number (For exampleSee n 52for the footnote. The targeted compounds are widely studied nanotubes attaining exquisite nanostructures due to their distinguishable properties attaining numeric values. Finally, the first and last page of the article should be cited, including pp.. Use the following abbreviations: Official notices of the EU are in the Official Journal of the European Communities (which is abbreviated to OJ). In it, you assign each citation a footnote that duplicates the reference at the end of the paper almost precisely, with some exceptions such as using a specific page number. }}n,"ty3S3s?HL`OG5:Z@/$e|{7F.4!H//nyLo?$4b%=n). *You can also browse our support articles here >. Use ( )if the date of publication is NOT needed to find the article eg. 13 Hugh Jones and Christopher Benson, Publishing Law (4th edn, Routledge 2011) 32, The only difference is the author is now listed surname first for the first author and you do not include page numbers, Author,Title(edition, Publisher | year), Jones Hand C Benson, Publishing Law (4th edn, Routledge 2011), For two or three authors, all named authors must be included. If the information is available in print, reference the print version. This will be the case for virtually all articles found in Westlaw, Lexis and Hein Online. Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990, sch. endstream endobj 406 0 obj <>/Metadata 53 0 R/OCProperties<>/OCGs[418 0 R]>>/Outlines 60 0 R/PageLayout/SinglePage/Pages 400 0 R/StructTreeRoot 99 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 407 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 408 0 obj <>stream An example of a typical case citation with a neutral citation is: Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884. The case name should be printed in italics, including the v, and the v should not be followed by a full stop. Eg, the Director of Public Prosecutions should appear as DPP not D.P.P. Authors are responsible for ensuring that their submission conforms to SCRIPTeds formatting style (see below and our Article and Book Review templates), and for ensuring that all citations are accurate. Cross citation is when you are referring to discussion in another part of your writing, for example on an earlier page or in a previous chapter. For an Authored Book (i) By a single author: Name of the Author, | Title of the Book | Speaker (if a direct quote)/Presenter, 'Title of the programme' (Radio station, date of the programme). If the newspaper is divided into sections, and the page numbering begins afresh in each section, put the section name in roman before the page number, with a space but no comma between the two. OSCOLA referencing guide (Online): Repeating Citations Subsequent citations The first time a source is mentioned, you must give the citation in full. If the case name is included in the text, omit it in the footnote. Quotes in a foreign language should normally appear in English translation, but the original text may also be reproduced if it is necessary that the text be examined closely. OSCOLA was first devised in 2000 by Regius Professor Peter Birks, with the aim of reducing the "woeful waste of scholarly time caused by the absence of a national standard for citation . Legal sources such as cases and statues may be cited, along with secondary sources, for example, books and journals. To indicate that words have been omitted from a quote, please use ellipses () without any spaces around them,e.g. OSCOLA is a footnote referencing style. The bibliography is the same format as the footnote except thatthe author is now listed surname firstfollowed by their initials, page numbers are not included and there is no full stop at the end of the reference. The first time a statute is cited its full title should be used, together with the calendar year. There is no specific guidance on this within OSCOLA. Author (s) Enter the Surname and Initials for each Author of the Journal Author Surname * Author Firstname OR Initial (s) * Secondary sources include books, journal articles, legal blogs, encyclopedias like Halsbury's, Topic guides in Westlaw, and anything that isn't 'the law'. 636 0 obj <> endobj Remove Additional Authors, Add a 4th Author Note the different rules for annual case reports as compared with ongoing reports. Analysis pieces and Case/Legislative comments only go to an external peer reviewer if internal Edinburgh Law School faculty and/or PhD candidates lack the expertise to provide an adequate review. 1. Do notuse italics for text in the footnote unless it is a Latin abbreviation or a reference to a case or book requiring italics (e.g. It is widely used in law schools and by journal and book publishers in the UK and beyond. Author, 'Web page title' (Website in Italics, Full Date) accessed Date. T2p210g0r`>Pj%mei P *VBQ@\37U0wt0TtVtw4dw4"v0;*:Hp,PZ=Hs1~13pa` 1``R @A I^x(3p)CT1r u0Yy Pinpointing a page Example eighty-four), unless they refer to a percentage, in which case it appears as, for example, 25%. Articles, Analysis Pieces, Case/Legislation Comments and Conference Reports should be written using our Article template. So, the Children Act 1989 becomes CA 1989 (not just CA). When citing explanatory notes to statutes, precede the name of the statue with Explanatory notes to the. For multiple authors, follow the rules outlined in Journal Articles, above. Only do this if paragraph numbers are explicitly used in the text. Deb is short for debate, vol for volume, and col for column. For example: Also, order the sources with legislation before cases, and primary sources before secondary. If known, give the number of the page on which the article was published, after the brackets. List in the bibliography in alphabetical order under Secondary Sources. Acronyms and short titles should only be used after the full title has appeared once in the text (e.g. You must insert an 'and' before the last author's name, European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) cases. 4th ed.) if applicable; and. Cite as a book but exclude author or editor and publisher. (2008) 71 MRL 413 accessed 15 Jan 2014. Paragraph text should use 1.5 line spacing. For specific references, include a comma, followed by the chapter or page number, including ch. and/or p.. If you read a book in a language other than English (eg, you read a book written in German), cite the primary source in the original language: Cite a book review in the same way as a journal article, but without the quote marks. For Book Reviews, our in-house Book Review template should be used. there is a volume number. Articles should not normally exceed 10,000 words (including footnotes). author, | 'Title' | date | volume number | journal title | 1st page of article | pinpoint (if needed) Paul Craig, 'Theory, "Pure Theory" and Values in Public Law' [2005] PL 440. Bibliography: For judgements of the European Court of Human Rights, you should cite either the offical reports, the Reports of Judgements and Decisions (ECHR) or the European Human Rights Reports (EHRR). %%EOF List Legislation and Cases separately in alphabetical order in the bibliography. If there is no author, cite the editor or translator as an author, adding in brackets after their name. If there are more than three authors, give the name of the first author followed by 'and others'. Where there is no relevant advice elsewhere in OSCOLA, follow the general principles for secondary sources when citing websites and blogs. Usually, the bibliography is divided into three sections: Cases, Legislation and Secondary Sources Cases - List the cases alphabetically in order of the first significant word. Book. Narcotics contribute greatly to the black economy, for example the value of illegal drugs transactions has been estimated at up to 1.5 billion annually. The following website is a useful reference: http://www.askoxford.com/betterwriting/us/?view=uk. Preferred journal abbreviations can be checked on the. Lord Williams. SCRIPTed is pleased to consider submissions sent via e-mail to editors.scripted@ed.ac.uk. X argues that Y.1 NOT X argues that Y1.). when other citations appear in between), use the authors last name or the title (shortened if its a longer title), followed by the number of the previous citation (in brackets and preceded by n), then the page number youre pinpointing (if different than the first citation): OSCOLA provides formats for a variety of source types. Pajunen, K. 2008. Internet may be capitalised, or not, at the authors discretion. A z can be used in official names of organisations (e.g. . 28 February 2020 'Theory, "Pure Theory" and Values in Public Law' [2005] PL 440, 'In Defense of Due Deference' (2009) 72 MLR 554. an article/pdf/ebook is available anywhere in print format, you should cite it as you would a printed piece of work (even if you have read it online). Please use double quotation marks ( ) when defining a term for use in the article (e.g. Graham Greenleaf, The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information (2010) 1(1) EJLT accessed 27 July 2010. For detailed Headings within the text are encouraged. do not write See n. 12.). The OSCOLA style can be considered a footnote-based alternative to the Harvard format, as it is also applied in universities throughout the world regardless of the discipline. Chemical graph theory significantly predicts multifarious physio-chemical properties of complex and multidimensional compounds when investigated through topological descriptors and QSPR modeling. (Oxford: OUP, 2018)). If there are more than three authors, cite the first author followed by and others. OSCOLA does not purport to be comprehensive, but gives rules and examples for . Along with an overview of referencing, our authors share their thoughts on why referencing is used in academic writing. A full, searchable index of these abbreviations can be found here. Older books do not have ISBNs, but you should cite them as books even if you read them online. That means that you add small, superscript numbers (for example, 1,2,3) to the sources in your text, which connect to footnotes at the bottom of your page. 1 Robert Stevens, Torts and Rights (OUP 2007). Bibliography entries differ from citations in terms of their presentation of the authors name. SCRIPTed publishes Articles, Analysis Pieces, Case/Legislation Comments, Book Reviews, and Conference Reports. You need a date of publication or at least a date of access (ie when you looked at it), as they are generally updated regularly. Act title Year, s Section number(Subsection number)(Paragraph number). Including quotations In round brackets, the city of publication, followed by a colon, the publisher, followed by a comma, and the year of publication (e.g. If there is more than one editor or translator, put (eds) or (trs). 1. If DOI is unknown then enter the URL of the online journal. Lets look at the OSCOLA system in detail, and how you can cite a wide range of legal sources. Make sure that all original punctuation marks are within quotation marks. It is recommended that no more than three levels of heading be used, as follows (numbering and font sizes are automatically set by our template): SCRIPTed uses UK, not American spelling (e.g. GDPR, art. Each source only needs to be listed once, even if you have referred to it multiple times. OR:See text to n 22. Balogh v Hungary App no 47940/99 (ECtHR, 20 July 2004). List the edition (abbreviated to edn) when it is stated on the title page. An OSCOLA (Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities) citation for a journal article includes the author name (s), publication year, article title, journal name, volume and issue number, page range of the article, and a DOI (if available). Include the edition and year. The journal does not follow the Bluebook, Harvard, Vancouver, or Chicago citation styles. [2] For example, if you used a book as a source that was written by Harry Potter and Luna Lovegood, your Works Cited entry would start "Potter, Harry." Each primary word should begin with a capital letter (e.g. For articles with four or more authors, use the first name and surname of the first author followed by et al. which is not italicised (e.g. HL Deb OR HC Deb | date, | volume, | column. You should cite the authors name first, followed by a comma, and then the title of the book in italics. Referees are asked to consider the following: (1) overall quality; (2) originality (its contribution to the field); (3) timeliness and time sensitivity; (4) academic standards (argumentation and presentation, including adequacy of referencing, grammar, syntax etc. Where cases concern only individuals, leave out forenames and initials. 2006). Book Reviews should be written using our Book Review template. An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Statues are divided into parts, sections, subsections, paragraphs and subparagraphs. For those where multiple volumes appear in one year, the year appears in square brackets. Follow this by the phrase available at, followed by the URL, which should be hyperlinked. when footnote 34 says, supran. 25, make sure that footnote 25 contains the information that it should). Authors may provide an English translation of their submission, in which case both versions will be published (if they wish). from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/oscola/. If no individual author is identified, but an organisation or institution claims editorial responsibility for the work, then cite it as the author. Thereference is then given in the footnoteat the bottom of the page. See OSCOLA 4th edn 3.4.8 for more details. If they are a Lord/Lady Justice, use LJ, e.g. Square brackets [ ] are used when theyear is crucial to identify the relevant volume of the journal(e.g. The bibliographyat the end of the document includes the full details of each source so the reader can find them themselves. Include the person's position if relevant. hbbd``b`ADk$,A"z g $qYq# Note that OSCOLA recommends abbreviating Oxford University Press to OUP; this is not the case with other publishers. If only youd done it in the first place! Brown J/Green MR/Yellow LJ/SCC/HL/CA/QC/Co/Ltd/USA/USSR/WTO/UN/UNESCO/IT/AI). House of Commons bills are cited slightly differently from House of Lords bills. Author, Title in Italics Capitalising Major Words(Edition, Publisher Year) page. Changes will be sent to the author for approval. When you make a reference to a judge in a case, use the judges surname followed by the conventional abbreviation identifying their judicial office. You should give the name of the case in full when you first mention it in the text or footnotes. Referees will recommend one of the following options: (1) accept outright for publication; (2) accept subject to minor modification; (3) accept subject to major modification; (4) reject outright. Additionally, note that the year (for the report) is displayed differently depending on whether it is essential to the citation. Digitalisation and Intermediaries in the Music Industry: The Rise of the Entrepreneur? For example: Another alternative, particularly if the podcast is quite long, would be to provide the minutes and seconds of the excerpt: Author, 'Title' (additional information, publisher year), Footnote: analyse, not analyze; criticise, not criticize; characterise, not characterize). Needless to say, the add authordate -- Author/date style citation styles beebe -- A collection of bibliographies besjournals -- Bibliographies suitable for British Ecological Society journals bestpapers -- A BibTeX package to produce lists of authors' best papers bib2gls -- Command line application to convert .bib files to glossaries-extra.sty resource files No full stops are used with abbreviations other than e.g., i.e., vs., and etc. This should be followed by the word in, which in turn should be followed by a reference to the collected work itself (see Books, above). OR use s for Section in the middle of a sentence. If no person, organisation or institution claims responsibility for the work, begin the citation with the title. You remember that in all those pages of research, you forgot to reference the sources you used. This means referring to a source you have not read that you have found within another source that you are using. For shorter essays, this is usually not necessary, but do check your institutions guidelines. In the footnote, the authors name should be provided exactly as it appears in the publication, omitting postnominals such as QC: (Note: sometimes only first name initials are provided on the publication so your footnote will reflect this e.g. Information to include: Case/Legislation Comments and Conference Reportsshould not normally exceed 3,000 words. For a comprehensive list of legal abbreviations, use the Cardiff index. A longer dash is used to separate a sentence from a side remark (e.g. A Referencing Guide for Law Students How to reference an article << Previous: Books; Next: Websites >> Last Updated: Nov 9, 2022 11:19 AM; URL: https://libguides.coventry.ac.uk/oscola; Print Page; Login to LibGuides (staff only) Lanchester Library Coventry University Frederick Lanchester Building Gosford Street Coventry, United Kingdom CV1 5DD . 666 0 obj <>stream Oscola by Donal Nolan (Editor); Sandra Meredith (Editor); Faculty of Law, University of Oxford Staff Call Number: D 340.074 OSC ISBN: 9781849463676 Publication Date: 2012-04-26 Examples of citing sources using OSCOLA These are some examples of how you might cite some common legal materials using OSCOLA. For subsequent citation of cases, please cite the name of the first party only and the relevant paragraph, e.g. endstream endobj 637 0 obj <>/Metadata 30 0 R/Pages 634 0 R/StructTreeRoot 111 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 638 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 596.04 842.04]/Parent 634 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 639 0 obj <>stream Pinpoints such as volumes and page numbers come after the publication information. Gary Blasi and John Jostin, System Justification Theory and Research: Implications for Law, Legal Advocacy, and Social Justice in Jon Hanson (ed.). British Medical Journal podcast, 'Insanity in the Dock' (20 July 2012) 10:30-11:15 accessed 15 April 2014. Your email address will not be published. The author must change any references in these formats into the SCRIPTed house style, and use footnotes accordingly. Paul Craig, Theory, "Pure Theory" and Values in Public Law [2005] PL 440. Paul Craig, Theory, Pure Theory and Values in Public Law [2005] PL 440, Griffith JAG, The Common Law and the Political Constitution (2001) 117 LQR 42. The number is displayed in superscript (i.e. 651 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<25B4EF49AED27F43B77B78D9AB559179><2249A2BC3A9D384391123A244374C65B>]/Index[636 31]/Info 635 0 R/Length 85/Prev 412639/Root 637 0 R/Size 667/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream If there is no date of publication on the website, give only the date of access. If no neutral citation exists, as with cases before 2002, you can just begin with the report. For more detailed information, see OSCOLA Appendix 4.2. Journal articles Start with the article author (first name/initial then surname, multiple authors to be treated as per books), then the article title in single quotes. Please also consult the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) for correct spellings. Bill title HC Bill (Session) [Bill number]. Ensure that every footnote corresponds correctly with the footnote that it references (e.g. [Online]. Communications (Isle of Man) Order 2020, SI 2020/149. Chatterton v Gerson, [1981] 1 All ER 257 (QB) (hereinafterChatterton). For more detailed information, see OSCOLA 1.1 and 1.2. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. endstream endobj startxref See theOSCOLA guidesand our Referencing with Confidence OSCOLA Guide for more details. 1. When citing journal articles which have been published only electronically, give publication details as for articles in hard copy journals, but note that online journals may lack some of the publication elements (for example, many do not include page numbers). (See our abbreviations section below for further guidance). 3, s. 2 (hereinafter HFEA 1990), Protection from Abuse (Scotland) Act 2001, Duration of Copyright and Rights in Performances Regulations 1995, SI 1995/3297, The authors/authors forenameand surname with no full stops (no middle initials are required). OSCOLA is a footnote referencing style. . Author,Title(edition,Publisher | year) page number. A Quick Guide to OSCOLA Referencing | Rules & Examples. 405 0 obj <> endobj statutes and so on), as well as secondary sources such as books, journal articles, websites and policy statements . A footnote is marked in the text with a footnote number, which appears at the end of the relevant sentence or clause. If citation advice is provided by the online journal, follow it, removing full stops as necessary to comply with OSCOLA.